Nanofabrication

The Center for Nanoscale Systems' Nanofabrication Facility provides resource and staff support for fabricating and characterizing nanoscale devices and structures.

Fabrication

Nanofabrication and growth are carried out in a 10,500 sq ft cleanroom.  The instruments available support an extensive range of fabrication and processing techniques, enabling a vase array of device structures from novel materials, ranging from NV center diamonds and other color center materials to TMDC atomic layer materials, III-V semiconductors, and biologically inspired systems.  Our facilities offer plasma enhanced and low pressure CVD systems for thin film growth, as well as an extensive development of Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) technologies.  In addition, CNS teams have developed world-class expertise in engineered surfaces and super-hydrophobicity.  To fabricate nanoscale structures and devices, CNS has excellent facilities for high-resolution e-beam and optical lithography, including four e-beam writers, as well as a versatile set  of reactive ion etch (RIE) and other etching systems. For soft materials and biological and biomedical applications, CNS offers a Soft Lithography foundry that can make a wide variety of microfluidic and soft robotic structures.

  • Nanofabrication : tool search
  • Back End
  • Chemical Vapor Deposition
  • Dry process
  • Furnaces
  • Lithography
  • Materials Preparation
  • Metrology
  • Physical Vapor Deposition
  • Wet benches
  • Chemical Nanotechnology
  • Rapid Prototyping
  • Soft Materials Cleanroom

Lithography

Lithography is the core technology of any nanofabrication facility. The Center for Nanoscale Systems has established rigorous lithography solutions for a diverse variety of complex patterning requirements. These include highly advanced e-beam lithography systems for ultra-fine pattern writing, fast laser direct writing tools, a high throughput optical stepper, conventional mask aligners, and even a cutting edge 3D laser lithography system.

Photolithography

Photolithography is a fabrication process that uses light to transfer a geometric pattern from a photomask to a light sensitive material (photoresist) on the substrate. Photolithography is the cornerstone of modern IC manufacturing in current state of the art fabrication facilities. Optical photolithography capabilities at CNS include spinner benches for photoresist processing, multiple mask aligners, a stepper and multiple direct write systems capable of writing a photolithography pattern directly on the wafer and also capable of making a photography mask.

The recently acquired Nanoscribe 3D lithography system has added a new dimension to our photolithography capabilities. The Nanoscribe 3D lithography system has already proven itself to be an important system for research in areas including MEMS/NEMS, optics, photonics, microfluidics and many more.

Electron-Beam Lithography EBL

Electron Beam Lithography (e-beam lithography or EBL) is an advanced lithography technology for creating ultrafine patterns (as small as 5nm) by using a focused electron beam. Derived from the scanning electron microscope, the technique in brief consists of scanning a beam of electrons in the desired pattern across a surface covered with an e-beam sensitive resist film.

CNS offers four advanced e-beam tools. Among them, the Elionix ELS-F125 system is the first EBL system in the world with 125KV acceleration voltage, which enables 5nm line width writing. Our knowledgeable staff has more than 20 years EBL experience across a large variety of applications.

Nanofabrication Facility

Nanoscribe 3D Lithog...

Nanoscribe’s 3D laser lithography system, Photonic Profession...

Nanofabrication Facility

Raith-150 E-Beam

Equipment description and usage:

The Raith 150 is an ultra-h...

Nanofabrication Facility

Heidelberg Mask Writ...

The Heidelberg DWL 66 is a high resolution, laser-based maskless op...

Nanofabrication Facility

Elionix ELS-7000

Ultra high precision 100 keV Electron Beam Lithography System. Mini...

Nanofabrication Facility

AS200 i-line Stepper

The AS200 i-line stepper is a 5X reduction exposure tool. It is spe...

Nanofabrication Facility

Hot Plate Tower 2

...

Nanofabrication Facility

SUSS MA6 Mask Aligne...

The SUSS MA6 Mask Aligner is the highest resolution contact mask al...

Nanofabrication Facility

Suss MJB4 Mask Align...

The MJB4 Mask Aligner allows different type of contact exposures (v...

Nanofabrication Facility

Hot Plate Tower 3

...

Nanofabrication Facility

Heidelberg uPG501

The Heidelberg Instruments uPG501 is an optical direct-write lithog...

Nanofabrication Facility

MLA150 Maskless Alig...

MLA150 Maskless Aligner is a high performance direct exposure syste...

Nanofabrication Facility

EVG 620 Mask Aligner

1. Introduction
EVG 620 mask aligner is a high-resolution pho...

Nanofabrication Facility

JEOL JSM-7000F

Imaging Resolution (SEM-mode):
1.2 nm 30kv
1.5 nm 15kv<...

Nanofabrication Facility

Elionix ELS-F125

Electron Beam Lithography System

...

Nanofabrication Facility

EVG 150 Automated Wa...

EVG 150 is an automated wafer coater/developer system capable of co...

Nanofabrication Facility

YES Vapor Prime Oven

The Yes vapor prime oven is used to apply a monolayer of HMDS to in...

Nanofabrication Facility

Layout BEAMER/LAB so...

Layout BEAMER /LAB software is designed for high performance patter...

Thin Film Deposition

CNS offers two major semiconductor thin film deposition technologies for various nanofabrication processes, Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) and Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD). Chemical vapor deposition includes a group of film deposition equipment and processes whereby gaseous reactants can be deposited onto a substrate, such as LPCVD, PECVD, diamond PECVD, ALD, as well as several furnaces/ovens for film post processes. Our PVD capability at CNS includes thermal evaporators (TE), e-beam evaporators (EE), and sputtering deposition systems. More than 50 materials (dielectric, semiconductor, metal) are available in CNS’s thin film deposition facility. In addition, we have established a film process database, which provides users a deposition baseline recipe and film properties measurement data.

Chemical Vapor Deposition

At the Center for Nanoscale systems, we offer a variety of CVD techniques that can be utilized to create thin films for many different applications.

Three low pressure CVD systems (LPCVD) are available; a silicon nitride furnace, a polysilicon and amorphous silicon furnace as well as a TEOS furnace that grows silica (SiO2).  We also have an atmospheric pressure CVD system (APCVD) that can oxidize silicon or other semiconductors to produce an oxide surface.  All of the LPCVD and APCVD furnaces typically operate above 600C, but do provide the highest quality films in terms of purity, pinhole density, and conformality.

The CNS cleanroom also offers two plasma enhanced (PECVD) systems.  The first system is based on standard parallel plate RF; this is used for growth of silica, silicon nitride and a:Si at temperatures from 190 to 300C, and dopant gases are available on this system.  The second system uses a microwave and RF plasma to grow the same materials, but there are no dopant gases, the growth rates are much slower, however it produces high quality films at low temperatures (<150C).  Finally we have a system for growing diamond films off of preexisting diamond surfaces using a hydrogen plasma and methane.

Atomic Layer Deposition ALD

Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a vacuum technology that allows the deposition of a wide variety of materials, at temperatures ranging from 300C down to room temperature.  This technique makes use of alternating pulses of very reactive precursors to grow very thin (~1 Angstrom/cycle) layers of material on multiple substrates with extreme conformality and uniformity, as well as angstrom-level thickness control.  Typical film thickness are between 1 nm to 100 nm.  Higher thickness films can be deposited.

CNS offers a variety of ALD options, using thermal (non-plasma) ALD technology.¬† ¬†Two 8‚ÄĚ Savannah ALD systems (ALD-1 and ALD-4) from Cambridge Nanotech/Ultratech are available to deposit oxides, including Al2O3, HfO2, TiO2, ZnO, SiO2, and various nanolaminate combinations of these oxides.¬† A third system, ALD-3, allows the use of ozone to grow a high quality SiO2, and metallic platinum at an unusually low temperature of 140C-150C.¬† In addition, TiO2 and Al2O3 films are available on this unit.¬† ALD-3 is set up to produce NiN and WiN films, which can be annealed down to relatively pure metallic films of Ni and W.

Physical Vapor Deposition

The Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) area of the CNS Nanofabrication Facility consists of evaporators and sputter systems that can facilitate vacuum deposition of thin films utilizing over forty different materials, including conductive metals, semiconductors, and dielectrics. We have four thermal evaporators (TE) and two electron beam (e-beam) evaporation systems (EE) to accommodate depositions for lift-off processes with noble metals, magnetics, and more. These systems are cryo-pumped for reliability and designed to operate in the E-7 torr range.

We also have two sputter systems (SP) that are engineered for conformal deposition. This is good for insulators or flat films on featureless substrates. The sputter systems also have substrate heating for manipulation of the film crystal structure in-situ.

Nanofabrication Facility

Sharon E-Beam Evapor...

Equipment description and usage: SHARON EE-3 is an e-beam evaporati...

Nanofabrication Facility

Savannah Atomic Laye...

The Savannah ALD (Atomic Layer Deposition) from Cambridge NanoTech ...

Nanofabrication Facility

Nexx PECVD

The NEXX CVD-2 is an ECR (electron cyclotron resonance) plasma-enha...

Nanofabrication Facility

Denton E-Beam Evapor...

Denton EE-4 is an electron beam deposition tool with a 6-position h...

Nanofabrication Facility

Sputtering System - ...

Equipment Description and Usage:
The SP-2 has a turbo-...

Nanofabrication Facility

STS PECVD

Equipment
This STS PECVD system is a dual frequency po...

Nanofabrication Facility

Sputtering System - ...

The SP-3 has a turbo-pumped chamber that reaches a vacuum in the 10...

Nanofabrication Facility

Key High Thermal Eva...

Equipment description and usage:
Key High Vacuum TE-1 ...

Nanofabrication Facility

Sharon Thermal Evapo...

SHARON TE-3 is a four-source thermal evaporation system with one 2....

Nanofabrication Facility

GEMStar ALD and Puls...

The GEMStar ALD and Pulsed CVD system from Arradiance Inc. a mid-te...

Nanofabrication Facility

PdR Atomic Layer Dep...

ALD-3 is a customer table top thermal ALD system designed and built...

Nanofabrication Facility

Sharon Thermal Evapo...

Equipment description and usage:
SHARON TE-4...

Nanofabrication Facility

Cambridge Nanotech/U...

The Savannah ALD (Atomic Layer Deposition) from Cambridge NanoTech ...

Nanofabrication Facility

Sharon Thermal Evapo...

Equipment description and usage:
SHARON TE-5 is a three-sourc...

Nanofabrication Facility

PECVD; Diamond

Now commissioned and ready for use

...

Etching

A wide range of wet and dry etching techniques are available in the CNS cleanroom to support the diverse fabrication portfolio of our users. Our dedicated wetbench set-ups support processes including several isotropic wet etching protocols and crystallographic orientation dependent Si KOH etching.  Also available are a dry etching tools for controlled plasma etching and ion beam milling.

Dry Etching Processes

Dry etching is a key process for pattern transferring and surface treatment in micro/nano device fabrication.  CNS has established strong dry etching capabilities for Si, III-V, diamond, oxide compound, metal, polymer and other materials. Users can select different advanced RIE technologies in CNS to meet their specific etching requirement, such as ICP, ECR, Bosch, NLD, XeF2, plasma ashing, and downstream ashing.  Various etching recipes are available in the process database.

Wet Processing

CNS provides a range of wet processes for micro/nano fabrication, including lithography development, lift-off process, acid process, HF, TMAH, and critical point drying.

Nanofabrication Facility

ULVAC Deep Oxide Etc...

The ULVAC NLD-570 etch system is designed with low process pressure...

Nanofabrication Facility

XeF2 etcher

XeF2 etching is an isotropic process widely used for releasing MEMS...

Nanofabrication Facility

South Bay RIE

The SouthBay reactive ion etcher is for anisotropic etching. It is ...

Nanofabrication Facility

SPTS Rapier DRIE

SPTS Rapier DRIE (RIE-10)

SPTS RIE-10, a state-of-the-art de...

Nanofabrication Facility

Plasma-Therm Diamond...

Plasma-Therm Diamond RIE (RIE-11)

PT RIE-11 is Plasma-Therm‚...

Nanofabrication Facility

Nexx RIE

Equipment description and usage:
NEXX RIE-6 is an ECR (electr...

Nanofabrication Facility

Unaxis Shuttleline I...

The Unaxis Shuttleline System is an Inductive Coupled Plasma (ICP) ...

Nanofabrication Facility

STS ICP RIE

Equipment:
STS RIE – 8 is an Inductively Coupled Plasma...

Nanofabrication Facility

Photoresist Develope...

AB-3 is a Reynolds Tech general purpose photoresist developer stati...

Nanofabrication Facility

Anatech Barrel Plasm...

The Anatech 106 oxygen plasma barrel asher is a useful tool for qui...

Nanofabrication Facility

Critical Point Dryer

Automated CPD for dehydrated biological material or other samples.<...

Nanofabrication Facility

General Wet Process ...

AB-1 is a Reynolds Tech general purpose wet process station for aci...

Nanofabrication Facility

RCA Clean Wet Proces...

AB-2 is a Reynolds Tech RCA clean wet process station located in th...

Nanofabrication Facility

Metal Lift-Off Proce...

SB-1 is a Reynolds Tech general purpose wet process station for met...

Nanofabrication Facility

Matrix Plasma Asher

The Matrix 105 represents the industry standard in single-wafer pho...

Nanofabrication Facility

Samco UV & Ozone Str...

The Samco UV-Ozone cleaner uses atomic oxygen, produced via the dec...

Nanofabrication Facility

INTLVAC Nanoquest Io...

Equipment:

Ion beam etching (IBE) uses an energetic, broad b...

Nanofabrication Facility

Technics Plasma Stri...

The Technics is a rf plasma reactor and equipped with stainless ste...

Nanofabrication Facility

Solvent Processing S...

SB-1 is a Reynolds Tech general purpose wet process station for sol...

Nanofabrication Facility

Solvent Based Photor...

SB-3 is a Reynolds Tech general purpose work station for solvent-ba...

Nanofabrication Facility

Positive/Negative Ph...

SB-3 is a Reynolds Tech general purpose work station for positive a...

Nanofabrication Facility

SU-8 Spin Coating St...

SB-5 is a Reynolds Tech general purpose work station for photodefin...

Nanofabrication Facility

Electron Beam Resist...

SB-06 is a Reynolds Tech general purpose work station for electron ...

Nanofabrication Facility

Electron Beam Resist...

SB-07 is a Reynolds Tech general purpose work station for electron ...

Metrology and Packaging

CNS has a large array of metrology instrument for measuring, monitoring, and characterizing every nanofabrication process, as well as device properties. Key metrology capabilities in nanofabrication include: electrical property characterization, optical property measurement, device CD monitoring, SPM techniques and advanced SEM. Packaging capability in CNS includes wafer dicing saw, wafer cleaver, flip-chip bonder and wire bonder.

Metrology

A large of array of measurement and characterization tools is available at CNS to provide traditional metrology and process control throughout the nanofabrication facilities.  The contact surface profiler’s are commonly used for all-purpose step-height measurement of film thickness or etch depth.  The scanning and spectroscopic ellipsometer’s are used regularly for film thickness uniformity and optical properties of transparent thin films.  An optical profiler or white light interferometer is also available inside the cleanroom for surface topography, roughness, and step height measurements over large areas, while an AFM is also available to scan small areas of a wafer up to 6 inch diameter.  The AFM has the highest lateral and vertical resolution for roughness, topography, and step heights with sub-nanometer resolution.  There are several instruments supporting electrical characterization and device testing available including 4pt probe station with heated chuck as well as sheet resistance mapping for uniformity of PVD films or doping.  A low-temperature, environmentally controlled 4pt probe station and Van der Pauw Hall system is also available.  A Contact angle measurement system and critical-dimension SEM are offered inside the cleanroom in addition to many optical microscopes and digital cameras for quick inspection or measurements.

Nanofabrication Facility

Characterization Ele...

Located in metrology bay next to probe station

...

Nanofabrication Facility

Agilent B1500 Semico...

Agilent B1500 Semiconductor Analyzer with B1520A-FG multi-frequency...

Nanofabrication Facility

4156c Seminconductor...

Agilent 4156c semiconductor parameter analyzer for device and thin ...

Nanofabrication Facility

Woollam Spectroscopi...

Equipment description and usage:

Woollam V-VASE32 vertical a...

Nanofabrication Facility

Scanning Ellipsomete...

...

Nanofabrication Facility

FLX-2320-S Thin Film...

The FLX-2320-S determines stress by measuring the curvature change ...

Nanofabrication Facility

LED Measurement Syst...

The OL 770-LED Test and Measurement System is a high-speed, CCD-bas...

Nanofabrication Facility

Contact Angle and Su...

The FTA100 series contact angle and surface tension measurement sys...

Nanofabrication Facility

CDE ResMap-178

CDE 4 point probe (4pp) ResMap 178 is a precision instrument for me...

Nanofabrication Facility

Hall Effect Measurem...

The MMR Hall and Van der Pauw Measurement System can be used to ana...

Nanofabrication Facility

Olympus Optical Micr...

The Olympus BX51 optical microscope provides reflection and transmi...

Nanofabrication Facility

Olympus Microscope (...

The Olympus BX51 optical microscope provides reflection/episcopic m...

Nanofabrication Facility

Nikon Optiphot 150 I...

The Nikon Optiphot 150 IR microscope using white light with ZnSe ob...

Nanofabrication Facility

Nikon Optiphot 66 Op...

The Nikon Optiphot 66 optical microscope provides reflection and tr...

Nanofabrication Facility

Nikon L200 Optical M...

The Nikon L200 optical inspection microscope and accommodate wafers...

Nanofabrication Facility

Veeco Dektak Profilo...

Dektak 6M profilometer measures the surface topography electromecha...

Nanofabrication Facility

CCI HD Optical Profi...

This advanced optical profiler uses Coherence Correlation Interfero...

Nanofabrication Facility

Veeco NanoMan AFM

This SPM is designed to characterize the topographic and material p...

Nanofabrication Facility

Finetech Flip Chip B...

Fineplacer Lambda Manual Sub-Micron Flip-Chip Bonder provides accur...

Nanofabrication Facility

Signatone Probe Stat...

The Signatone S-1160 4pt Probe Station is configured with up to six...

Nanofabrication Facility

Lakeshore 1.5K Probe...

Although temperature can be stabilized at 1.5K, employing various h...

Nanofabrication Facility

LSD-100 Scriber/Clea...

LSD-100 is an ideal tool for scribing/cleaving III-V compounds. It ...

Nanofabrication Facility

Fusion Splicer

The FSM-45PM splicer is designed to handle similar and dissimilar f...

Nanofabrication Facility

Wire Bonder

Wedge bonder configured for aluminum wire. It will attach to pads d...

Nanofabrication Facility

EVG 501 Wafer Bonder

The EVG 501 is a wafer bonding station capable of running 6″¬...

Soft Lithography Foundry, Nanotechnology, and Rapid Prototyping Lab

LISE G06 is a multi-functional space, acting as the soft lithography foundry, nanotechnology and rapid prototyping laboratory. Microfluidic devices can be assembled and tested in this space; an oxygen plasma etcher, UV flood exposure system, PDMS, and silane are supplied for G06 users. Additionally, a wax printer is provided for making paper-based microfluidic devices. For rapid prototyping purposes, two 3D printers and one laser cutter are also housed here for making micrometer to millimeter scale devices. Various nanotechnology and material characterization tools are also be found in G06, such as: planetary ball mill, lyophilizer, contact angle measurement tool, particle counter, and BET analyzer. 

Soft Materials Cleanroom

The Soft Materials Cleanroom, located in LISE G07A, is a space for fabricating microfluidic devices and soft microscale devices using soft lithography techniques. These nanofabrication facilities serve a broad range of multidisciplinary users; soft lithography projects include sophisticated plasmonic and meta optical structures and devices for next generation photonics and electronics, as well as wide range of functional microfluidic systems.

NanoMaterials Facility

Makerbot 3D printer

3D printer using ABS plastic extrusion. 100 um layer thickness.

...

NanoMaterials Facility

Form 2 SLA 3D printe...

SLA printer with a build volume of 145 x 145 x 175mm and layer thic...

NanoMaterials Facility

VersaLaser Cutting/E...

This new laser cutting system is the latest addition to our microfa...

NanoMaterials Facility

Planetary Ball Mill

Retsch PM 100 planetary ball mill is part of the Nanopartciles Faci...

NanoMaterials Facility

Acid Wet Process Sta...

AB-4 is a Reynolds Tech general purpose wet process station for aci...

NanoMaterials Facility

G06 Solvent Bench

SB-8 is a Reynolds Tech general purpose work station for solvent-ba...

NanoMaterials Facility

Hot Plate Tower 1

...

NanoMaterials Facility

AB-M Mask Aligner

This mask alignment and exposure system has a table-top configurati...

NanoMaterials Facility

Plasma Barrel Etcher

...

NanoMaterials Facility

Spin Coater

...

NanoMaterials Facility

VirTis Freeze Dryer ...

This compact but feature-rich freeze dryer (a.k.a. lyophilizer) is ...

NanoMaterials Facility

KBr press

KBr press system for embedding powdered samples in infrared transpa...

NanoMaterials Facility

Abbe 3L Refractomete...

Abbe 3L refractometer to measure the index of refraction of aqueous...

NanoMaterials Facility

Soft Lithography Fou...

The foundry in LISE G06 provides amenities such as two state-of-the...

NanoMaterials Facility

DelsaNano C Particle...

DelsaNano C is a photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) instrument, ...

NanoMaterials Facility

Multisizer 3 Coulter...

Using the Coulter Principle, also known as ESZ (Electrical Sensing ...

NanoMaterials Facility

Eppendorf 5810 centr...

The 5810 centrifuge is a compact 3 L-centrifuge.
Max. capacit...

NanoMaterials Facility

UV Flood Exposure Sy...

The OAI LS 30 UV flood exposure system is a 350 W near-UV stand-alo...

NanoMaterials Facility

KLA-Tencor P-16+ Con...

The KLA-Tencor P-16+ is a contact stylus-type surface profiler, whi...

NanoMaterials Facility

Headway Spin Coater

This spin coater is shared by Soft Lithography Foundry and Nanopart...

NanoMaterials Facility

Thinky Mixer

...

NanoMaterials Facility

Plasma Prep II

Surface treatment or surface cleaning tool using oxygen process. Wo...

NanoMaterials Facility

Wax Printer

Solid ink printer is used to fabricate paper-based microfluidic dev...

NanoMaterials Facility

Transparency Photoma...

PlateRite FX870II is a laser-based digital writer for writing dry-f...